Nurturing care among adolescent mothers
Accepted: 1 June 2023
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.
Many studies show the impact of adolescent mothers on child development. To prevent the impact of adolescent pregnancy, nurturing care is needed to support optimal children's development. This study aims to identify comprehensive nurturing care among adolescent mothers. This study used secondary data in the integration of the 2018 National Socioeconomic Survey and Basic Health Survey. To measure nurturing care, 5 components were used: health, adequate nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and opportunities for early learning with latent class analysis. The results of the analysis showed that 62% of adolescent mothers provided uncompleted nurturing care. About 21% of adolescent mothers need assistance in improving nurturing care related to adequate nutrition and learning opportunities, and 17% need assistance to improve health, nutrition, responsive caregiving, and opportunities for early learning. Adolescent mothers are in need of comprehensive nurturing care for their children. Practice is needed in order to enhance nurturing care initiatives, particularly for teenage mothers.
Mollborn S and Dennis JA: Explaining the early development and health of teen mothers children. Sociol Forum (Randolph N J) 27: 1010‑1036, 2013.
BPS, BKKBN, Ministry of Health RI, USAID. 2017 Demographic And Health Survey. Jakarta, pp606, 2018.
Duncan GJ, Lee KTH, Rosales‑Rueda M and Kalil A: Maternal age and child development. Demography 55: 2229‑2255, 2018.
Belsky J and Barends N: Personality and Parenting. In: Bornstein MH, (ed). Handbook of Parenting. New York, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc, pp415‑438, 2002.
Leslie K and Dibden L: Adolescent parents and their children‑The paediatrician's role. Paediatr Child Health 9: 561‑564, 2004.
Lewin A, Mitchell SJ and Ronzio CR: Developmental differences in parenting behavior: Comparing adolescent, emerging adult, and adult mothers. Merrill‑Palmer Quarterly (Wayne State University. Press) 59: 23‑49, 2013.
Black MM, Behrman JR, Daelmans B, Prado EL, Richter L, Tomlinson M, Trude ACB, Wertlieb D, Wuermli AJ and Yoshikawa H: The principles of Nurturing Care promote human capital and mitigate adversities from preconception through adolescence. BMJ Glob Heal 6: e004436, 2021.
Falster K, Hanly M, Banks E, Lynch J, Chambers G, Brownell M, Eades S and Jorm L: Maternal age and offspring developmental vulnerability at age five: A population‑based cohort study of Australian children. PLoS Med 15: e1002558, 2018
Prado EL, Abbeddou S, Adu‑afarwuah S, Arimond M, Ashorn P, Ashorn U, Bendabenda J, Brown KH, Hess SY, Kortekangas E et al: Predictors and pathways of language and motor development in four prospective cohorts of young children in Ghana, Malawi, and Burkina Faso. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 11: 1264‑1275, 2017.
Firk C, Konrad K, Herpertz‑dahlmann B, Scharke W and Dahmen B: Cognitive development in children of adolescent mothers: The impact of socioeconomic risk and maternal sensitivity. Infant Behav Dev 50: 238‑246, 2018.
Khatun M, Mamun A Al, Scott J, William GM, Clavarino A and Najman JM: Do children born to teenage parents have lower adult intelligence? A prospective birth cohort study. PLoS One 12: e0167395, 2017.
World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, World Bank Group. Nurturing care for early childhood development: A framework for helping children survive and thrive to transform health and human potential. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2018.
Black MM, Walker SP, Fernald LCH, Andersen CT, Digirolamo AM, Lu C, McCoy DC, Fink G, Shawar Y, Shiffman PJ, et al: Advancing early childhood development: From Science to Scale 1 Early childhood development coming of age: Sciencethrough. Lancet 6736: 77‑90, 2017.
Vallejos J, Landers C and Schiavo R: Barriers and opportunities for young caregivers to provide nurturing care in low‑income communities of Paraguay. Int J Child Heal Hum Dev 12: 319‑334, 2019.
Corcoran J, Franklin C and Bennett P: Ecological factors associated with adolescent pregnancy and parenting. Soc Work Res 24: 29‑39, 2000.
Wang J and Wang X: Structural Equation Modelling Aplication Usiang Mplus. Second. Balding DJ, Cressie NA, Fitzmaurice GM, Goldstein H, Molenberghs G, Scott DW, et al. editors. West Sussex, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2020.
Purbowati A: Adolescent fertility in indonesia: Relation between teenage childbearing and women educational attainment. J Kependud Indones 14: 153‑164, 2019.
WHO. Adolescent Pregnancy Situation in South East ASia Region. India, WHO Press, 2014.
Bicchieri C and Lindemans JW: A social norms perspective on child marriage: 1‑21, 2014.
McDougal L, Jackson EC, Mcclendon KA, Belayneh Y, Sinha A and Raj A: Beyond the statistic: Exploring the process of early marriage decision‑making using qualitative findings from Ethiopia and India. BMC Womens Health 18: 144, 2018.
Stark L: Poverty, consent, and choice in early marriage: Ethnographic perspectives from urban tanzania. Marriage Fam Rev 54: 1‑17, 2018.
Repubik Indonesia. Undang‑Undang RI nomor 23 tahun 2002 Tentang Perlindungan Anak [Internet]. Sekretaris Negara RI,
tahun 2002 Indonesia; p698‑703, 2002. Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jher.2011.03.002%0Ahttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2013.12.024%0Ahttps://repositorio.ufsc.br/bitstream/handle/123456789/186602/PPAU0156‑D.pdf?sequence=‑1&isAllowed=y%0Ahttp://journal.stainkudus.ac.id/index.php/equilibrium.
Hasan U, Muskibah, Suhermi, Sasmiar, Pahlefi. Legal Counseling on the Role of Parents, Teachers and Society in Preventing Early Marriage. Karya Abdi 5: 52‑61, 2021.
Mardi A, Ebadi A, Shahbazi S, Esmaelzade Saeieh S and Behboodi Moghadam Z: Factors influencing the use of contraceptives through the lens of teenage women: A qualitative study in Iran. BMC Public Health 18: 202, 2018.
Gayatri M: Dispelling the myths of infertility following contraceptive discontinuation: Survival analysis of the 2007, 2012 and 2017 indonesia demographic and health survey calendar data. Universitas Indonesia, 2019.
Khafidhoh N and Widjanarko B: Analysis of factors influencing early pregnancy care practices in North Coast of Kendal District. J Kebidanan 7: 50‑61, 2018.
Ministry of Health RI. Classroom training for pregnant women and toddlers for health workers. Jakarta, Kementerian Kesehatan RI, 2009.
Chung HW, Kim EM and Lee JE: Comprehensive understanding of risk and protective factors related to adolescent pregnancy in low‑ and middle‑income countries A systematic review. J Adolesc 69: 180‑188, 2018.
Effendi DE, Handayani L, Nugroho AP and Hariastuti I: Adolescent pregnancy preventation in rural Indonesia: A participatory action research. Rural Remote Health 21: 1‑12, 2021.
Kunnuji MON, Eshiet I and Nnorom CCP: A survival analysis of the timing of onset of childbearing among young females in Nigeria: Are predictors the same across regions? Reprod Health 15: 173, 2018.
KPPA and BPS: Indonesian child profile 2019 [Internet]. Kementerian Pemerdayaan Perempuan dan Perlindngan Anak (KPPPA). pp378, 2019. Available from: https://www.kemenpppa. go.id/lib/uploads/list/15242‑profil‑anak‑indonesia_‑2019.pdf.
Presiden Republik Indonesia. Undang‑Undang RI No. 20 Tahun 2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional (Law No. 20 of 2003 concerning the National Education System). No. 20 Tahun 2003, 2003.
Ikrom A, Taufik A, Hendri A, Febri A, Prayitno H, Darmawan R, Sudarno R, et al: Roadmap of 12‑year education in Indonesia. Koesoema D, (ed). Jakarta, Jaringan Pemantau Pendidikan Indonesia (JPPI), pp1‑172, 2015.
Sumiati T: Effect Adolescent Pregnancy on Nurturing Care In Indonesia. Univeritas Indonesia, 2022.
Black MM, Lutter CK and Trude ACB: All children surviving and thriving: Re‑envisioning UNICEF's conceptual framework of malnutrition. Lancet Glob Heal 8: e766‑e767, 2020.
Britto PR, Lye SJ, Proulx K, Yousafzai AK, Matthews SG, Vaivada T, Perez‑Escamilla R, Rao N, Ip P, Fernald LCH, et al: Nurturing care: Promoting early childhood development. Lancet 389: 91‑102, 2017.
Zhou S, Zhao C, Huang X, Li Z, Ye R, Shi H, Zhao Q, Zhou Y, Chen X, O'Sullivan M, et al: The effect of a community‑based, integrated and nurturing care intervention on early childhood development in rural China. Public Health 167: 125‑135, 2019.
Montessori M: Early Development from Birth to Age 6 [Internet]. Apple Montessori Schools, 2017. Available from: https://applemontessorischools.com/early‑development‑well‑birth‑age‑6/
Ministry of Education and Culture Indonesia. Technical Guidelines for organizing playgroups). Direktorat PAUD dan DIKMAS, 2015.
Texas Child Care Quarterly. Infant caregiving : How to be responsive [Internet]. Vol. 39, TEXAS CHILD CARE QUARTERLY‑Spring. 2016. Available from: https://www.childcarequarterly.com/backissu_spring16.php.
Ministry of National Development Planning Indonesia. Presidential Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia No. 2 of 2015 concerning the National Medium‑Term Development Plan 2015‑2019 [Internet]. Kementerian Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional, No 2 Tahun 2015 Indonesia, pp1‑311, 2014. Available from: https://www.hukumonline.com/pusatdata/detail/lt54d46d836eaf0/node/328/perpres-no‑2‑tahun‑2015‑rencana‑pembangunan‑jangka‑menengah‑nasional‑tahun‑2015‑2019.
Ministry of Education and Culture Indonesia. Ministry of Cultural Education Strategic Plan 2020‑2024). Jakarta: Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Indonesia, 2020.
Parihin. Dissemination of RAN PAUD HI and the Framework for Nurturing Care in its Contribution to stunting prevention: East Lombok Government [Internet]. Tanato Foundation. Indonesia, pp6, 2022. http://pendis.kemenag.go.id/file/dokumen/uuno20th2003ttgsisdiknas.pdf. Available from: http://stpi‑binainsanmulia.ac.id/wp‑content/uploads/2013/04/Lamp_2_UU20‑2003‑Sisdiknas.doc.
Supriyono, Iskandar H, Gutama. Family Education in the formation of national character [Internet]. Satu. Jakarta, Kementerian Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan Indonesia, pp79, 2015. Available from: http://repositori.kemdikbud.go.id/6173/1/PKPKBOKPRINT.pdf.
Engle PL, Menon P and Haddad L: Care and Nutrition: Concept and Measurement. Washington DC, 1996.
Afifah T: Early marriage and the impact of nutritional status on children (analysis of riskesdas data 2010). 34: 109‑119, 2011.
Fikawati S, Syafiq A and Karima K: Maternal and Child Nutrition. 1st ed. Jakarta, Rajawali Press, 2015.
Kassa GM, Arowojolu AO, Odukogbe AA and Yalew AW: Adverse neonatal outcomes of adolescent pregnancy in northwest Ethiopia. PLoS One 14: e0218259, 2019.
WHO. Adolescent Pregnancy [Internet]. WHO fact‑sheet. 2018 [cited 2019 Jan 20]. Available from: https://www.who.int/news‑room/fact‑sheets/detail/adolescent‑pregnancy.
Wanimbo E and Wartiningsih M: The relationship between maternal characteristics and the incidence of stunting baduta (7‑23 months). J Manaj Kesehat Yayasan RS Dr. Soetomo 6: 83‑93, 2020.
Nguyen PH, Scott S, Neupane S, Tran LM and Menon P: Social, biological, and programmatic factors linking adolescent pregnancy and early childhood undernutrition: A path analysis of India's 2016 National Family and Health Survey. Lancet Child Adolesc Heal 3: 463‑473, 2019.
Nasrullah M, Zakar R, Zakar MZ and Krämer A: Girl‑child marriage and its association with morbidity and mortality of children under 5 years of age in a nationally‑representative sample of Pakistan. J Pediatr 164: 639‑646, 2014.
Jeong J, Bhatia A and Fink G: Associations between birth registration and early child growth and development: Evidence from 31 low‑ and middle‑income countries. BMC Public Health 18: 673, 2018.
Amo‑Adjei J and Annim SK: Socioeconomic determinants of birth registration in Ghana. BMC Int Health Hum Rights 15: 14, 2015.
Isara A and Atimati A: Socio‑demographic determinants of birth registration among mothers in an urban community in southern Nigeria. J Med Trop 17: 16, 2015.
Copyright (c) 2023 the Authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.