Factors associated with breast disorders detected by clinical breast examination during pregnancy and six months postpartum in Ibadan, South-western Nigeria
Accepted: 25 April 2022
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Background. Breast disorders (BD) during pregnancy and postpartum cause anxiety and reduce women’s quality of life. The study examined BD risk factors during pregnancy and six months after delivery.
Methods. Women attending antenatal clinics at 26 weeks gestation were recruited. 1248 pregnant women were followed six months postpartum. During recruitment, a validated questionnaire was used to collect participant characteristics and risk factors. Palpable lumps, inflammation, persistent pain, and abnormal nipple discharge were classified breast disorders. Statistical analysis used multiple logistic and cox regression models at p<0.05.
Results. Women with benign breast disease were more likely to develop BD (aOR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.50–4.88). One pregnancy increases the risk of BD more than three times (aOR=0.52, 95%CI: 0.29–0.95). History of breast trauma (aHR=3.59, 95%CI: 1.40–9.17) and 3 miscarriages vs. none (aHR=2.23, 95%CI: 1.04–4.23) were also risk factors for BD. The second quartile of physical activity was associated with a lower risk of BD (aHR=0.35, 95%CI: 0.15–0.78).
Conclusion. Women with breast trauma and miscarriage are more likely to develop breast disorders during pregnancy and six months after delivery. Our findings highlight the need for additional longitudinal research to validate these findings and plans for prevention and control.
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